Investigating different types of EFL teacher questions as a formative assessment tool

Andri Suherman


This research article aimed to explore the types of questions deployed by EFL teachers as a formative assessment strategy. The participants in this case study were three Indonesian EFL teachers and twenty-four students. It investigated how these teachers posed questions to benefit learning, and analyzed how students responded to represent their real thinking. The research methods used were classroom observations and interviews. The findings revealed two main points; (1) the vast majority (over 70%) of convergent questions were posed by the teachers, followed by less than 20% of divergent questions and procedural questions, (2) individual answer and the choral answer made up the largest proportion (more than 40%), followed by a small minority (less than 10%) of no answer and teacher answer. The extent to which teacher questions benefited learning and in what way students' answers represented their real thinking was also discussed. The implications of this study were to provide practical insight to EFL teachers into how to develop questions as a formative assessment strategy and to inform EFL teachers with some suggestions to carry out effective questions to stimulate learners' real thinking.


teacher questions, students answers, EFL teachers, formative assessment

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